Wednesday, March 11, 2020

MRSA †Staph Bacteria

MRSA – Staph Bacteria Free Online Research Papers MRSA is by definition a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In breaking that down, it is easier to just state that MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics. MRSA can be fatal. The MRSA bacteria are commonly found on the skin or in the nose of healthy people. Staph bacteria are present in the nose of approximately 25% to 30% of the population without causing an infection, while MRSA is present in only about 1 percent of people. Most MRSA infections occur in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. Its known as health care-associated MRSA, or HA-MRSA. Older adults and people with weakened immune systems are at most risk of HA-MRSA. More recently, another type of MRSA has occurred among otherwise healthy people in the wider community. This form, community-associated MRSA, or CA-MRSA, is responsible for serious skin and soft tissue infections and for a serious form of pneumonia. Staph skin infections, including MRSA, generally start as small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils or spider bites. These can quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that require surgical draining. Sometimes the bacteria remain confined to the skin. One major problem with MRSA is that occasionally the skin infection can spread to almost any other organ in the body. When this happens, more severe symptoms develop. MRSA that spreads to internal organs can become life-threatening. Fever, chills, low blood pressure, joint pains, severe headaches, shortness of breath, and rash over most of the body are symptoms that need immediate medical attention, especially when associated with skin infections. Both hospital- and community associated strains of MRSA still respond to certain medications. In hospitals and care facilities, doctors often rely on the antibiotic vancomycin to treat resistant germs. CA-MRSA may be treated with vancomycin or other antibiotics that have proved effective against particular strains. Although vancomycin saves lives, it may become less effective as well. Some hospitals are already seeing strains of MRSA that are less easily killed by vancomycin. In some cases, antibiotics may not be necessary. For example, doctors may drain a superficial abscess caused by MRSA rather than treat the infection with drugs. Infection control is key to stopping MRSA in hospitals. Steps health care workers can take include: PROPER HANDWASHING! Covering coughs and sneezes Staying up-to-date with immunizations Using gloves, masks and protective clothing Making tissues and hand cleaners available Following hospital guidelines when dealing with blood or contaminated items To prevent community-associated MRSA: Practice good hygiene Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered with a bandage until healed Avoid contact with other people’s wounds or bandages Avoid sharing personal items, such as towels, washcloths, razors, or clothes Wash soiled sheets, towels and clothes in hot water with bleach and dry in a hot dryer There are two major ways people become infected with MRSA. The first is physical contact with someone who is either infected or is a carrier. The second way is for people to physically contact MRSA on any objects such as door handles, floors, sinks, or towels that have been touched by an MRSA-infected person or carrier. Normal skin tissue in people usually does not allow MRSA infection to develop; however, if there are cuts, abrasions, or other skin flaws such as psoriasis MRSA may grow. Many otherwise healthy individuals, especially children and young adults, do not notice small skin imperfections or scrapes and may be lax in taking precautions about skin contacts. This is the likely reason MRSA outbreaks occur in diverse types of people such as school team players (like football players or wrestlers), dormitory residents, and armed-services personnel in constant close contact. People with higher risk of MRSA infection are those with obvious skin breaks (surgical patients, hospital patients with intravenous lines, burns, or skin ulcers) and patients with depressed immune systems (infants, elderly, or HIV-infected individuals) or chronic diseases (diabetes or cancer). Patients with pneumonia due to MRSA can transmit MRSA by airborne droplets. Health-care workers as a group are repeatedly exposed to MRSA-positive patients and can have a high rate of infection if precautions are not taken. Health-care workers and patient visitors should use disposable masks, gowns, and gloves when they enter the MRSA-infected patients room. In conclusion, MRSA can be fatal, but is also very preventable. Using good hygiene measures, (especially hand washing), will greatly reduce the risk of spreading. Research Papers on MRSA - Staph BacteriaSexually Transmitted DiseasesGenetic EngineeringInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationHip-Hop is ArtDefinition of Export QuotasA Marketing Analysis of the Fast-Food RestaurantThe Fifth Horseman19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug Use

Monday, February 24, 2020

Divisions between the British tabloid and the serious, quality Press Essay

Divisions between the British tabloid and the serious, quality Press - Essay Example In as much as these media publications have different names and are no longer in circulation; they have something in common which lacks in the current media newspapers that we have today. The old publications represented the partisan ‘radical press’ that agitated for the betterment and improvement of the society (Stephens 2006, p. 23). They influenced the beliefs and the attitudes of the working class. This is because it defined the society to be made up systems of exploitations and not as a series of disjointed events. Additionally, the radical press played a significant role in undermining the social order normative support through challenging the validity of the economic and social institutions in which the social order was based (Seymour-Ure 1991, p. 150). The radical press obtained funding from subsidies from social movements and sales it made from the circulations of the publications. This is contrary to the independent press of the recent times which obtains its f unding from advertising revenues and sales of publications. Introduction Several debates revolving around the current state of British newspapers are being conducted. However, recent findings reveal that the traditional news values that dominated the media have become revolutionized and reformed (Negrine 1994, p. 87). In the recent times, the dominance of social and celebrity news, the blurring of the line separating reality shows and news, as well as the advent of civilian journalism, demonstrates that the nature of news and news values are changing; and that the traditional values of news are becoming irrelevant. It is worth noting that the old traditional news values are being replaced by the tabloid news values. These values represent the interpretive work of journalists, and they cut across the broad sectors of public life. For instance, this news revolves around crime, sports, scandals, pop culture, just to mention but a few (Hampton 2008, p. 98). On the other hand, pertinent issues such as public affairs and politics are given minimal attention. The tabloid news stories are normally personified in order to impart high emotions and sensation (Franklin 2008, p. 23). According to media historians, tabloid news values are present in the English newspapers in the recent times because of two factors, namely; media ownership and advertisements. This is because they contribute to the existent of hierarchies in the journalism profession. It is debated that there is no narrowing in the divide that exists between broadsheets and tabloid newspapers (Keeble 2008, p. 45). This is attributed to the fact that there are several changes in their features. Therefore, this paper shall seek to explicate as to whether tabloids are similar to broadsheets, as well as determine if the ‘quality press’ is concentrating primarily on issues that touch on public interests. In order to make my arguments clear, I will use examples to emphasize on my main points. Discussio n Studies reveal that broadsheets newspapers undergone a tabloidization process. Tabloidization refers to the style of papers that does not pay much attention to foreign affairs and government policies. Instead, it as an entertainment-oriented style of journalism that centers on celebrity, lifestyle, crime/ scandal and entertainment (Sparks & Dahlgren 1992, p. 123). Some of the reasons of tabloidization are

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Effectiveness of Project finance in wealthy countries Research Paper

Effectiveness of Project finance in wealthy countries - Research Paper Example Qatari oil and natural gas reserves are over 15 billion barrels and 26 trillion cubic metres respectively. Oil and gas revenue account for over 50 percent of its total GDP and 70 percent of all government revenues. Over 85 percent of all export earnings are from gas and oil. In fact, Qatar is the largest exporter of Liquefied natural gas (LNG). It is also the third largest country after Russia and Iran with largest gas deposits. In addition, Qatar relies heavily on foreign labour. Since oil and gas were discovered and extraction commenced in the 1950’s, Qatar’s economy has experienced high real gross domestic product growth rate each year. According to Blanchard, the country recorded 16 percent real gross domestic growth rate in 20102. Qatar is one of the richest countries in the world and has the highest per capita income in the Arab world. The GDP and per capita income was $128 billion and $67,000 in 2010 respectively. In addition, Qatari citizens and residents enjoy higher standard of living as compared to most countries in the world. Oil and gas sector generated over 70 percent revenues to the exchequer and the government does not levy income tax on all its citizens. According to CIA, the budget revenues and expenditures were estimated to be $47.32 billion and $31.61 billion respectively in 20103. Qatar has one of the lowest tax rates in the world, a situation that has attracted direct foreign investment. Furthermore, the country can grant t ax exception for about 12 years. Although economic growth and development is largely attributed to proceeds from huge deposits of oil and gas, the government has developed political, social, economic policies that promoted high levels of governance and transparency; reduced business process bureaucracies; and improve political stability, making it one of the stable Arab states in spite of political turmoil in neighboring Arab states. Economist, the World Bank and Transparency international have

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

De-Scalers Essay Example for Free

De-Scalers Essay When water is heated limescale deposits can form, especially in machines such as fully automatic coffee makers, espresso machines and all hot water units. In this context you often hear about hard and soft water. The hardness of the water indicates the proportion of limescale. Your water supply company will provide more information about hardness of your water. If your groundwater flows through calcareous rock layers, eroded magnesium and calcium carbonate will cause limescale deposits in your water. Why do I need to remove limescale? In addition to loss of coffee flavor limescale deposits can severely damage your machine and shorten its lifespan significantly. Limescale deposits in your machine lead to: Longer scalding time with higher electricity charges Lower water temperatures causing inferior coffee flavor Blocked machines pipe Corrosion of metal parts and sealing gaskets Expensive repairs Only regular and timely descaling with a high-quality descaler, such as ceragol ultra Premium Descaler, ensures a long lifespan and optimal coffee flavor. Your coffee maker is a high-tech machine which needs regular, gentle care. What do you expect from your descaler? Limescale deposits are removed by acids in the descaler. Only the right mixture of effective acids and gentle additives for the metal parts and sealing gaskets allows for optimal results during descaling. The quick reaction time and immediate reusability of the machine after rinsing are basic demands on a premium descaler. Why amidosulfonic acid? Descaling with citric or acetic acids The big problem when descaling with citric or acetic acids are the released flavor additives which cause an obtrusive smell during descaling. The plastic parts of your fully automated coffee maker tend to taken on these smells and influence the smell and taste of your coffee negatively. Plastic parts and sealing gaskets of your unit can be attacked by the vinegar or acetic acid. Citric acid tends to flake during descaling. This can block the valves and water pipes and lead to high repair charges. An additional problem is that the limescale is actually sealed in by an indissoluble layer which occurs repeatedly when using descalers based on citric acids. Descaling with vinegar, acetic acid or citric acid takes significantly longer than descaling with ceragol ultra Premium Descaler. Descaling with amidosulfonic acid Descaling with amidosulfonic acid, the active ingredient of our ceragol ultra Premium Descaler, does not require any reaction time. During the descaling program the limescale is dissolved and flushed away. This process is completely odorless and neutral in taste. After thorough rinsing your machine is once again food-safe. The additives in ceragol ultra Premium Descaler guard and protect the metal and plastic components of your fully automatic coffee maker. The right time to descale Automatic coffee machine w. auto descaling indicator Please ask your water supply company about the hardness of your water and set the water hardness according to the operating instructions of your manufacturer. Your machine will indicate when descaling is needed. Automatic coffee machine w/o descaling indicator Descaling becomes necessary as soon as you notice a delay in operation or irregularities during coffee preparation. Another telltale sign is the reduction of the amount of foam produced on the coffee. The machine must be descaled periodically and in due time.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Dysfunctional Family of Shakespeares King Lear Essay -- King Lear

The Dysfunctional Family of King Lear      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the reasons why Shakespeare is so thoroughly read today is because of his ability to portray human nature so accurately through his characters.   Shakespeare's play, King Lear shows us that humans are treacherous and selfish.   We can also relate to the play because of the family issues that Shakespeare incorporates throughout the work.   Lear's family is definitely a dysfunctional one.   However, the disrupted family unit is the basis for the play's tragedy.   The Contemporary Guide to Literary Terms defines tragedy as "a piece of writing that inspires fear or pity, through which the audience/reader experiences catharsis" (a purging of emotions).   Tragic plots should have a clear beginning, middle and end that all involve the protagonist in some way.   It is essential in this play for King Lear to have serious family problems in order for him to become a tragic hero.   The whole premise of the plot is based on his conniving daugh ters (with help from Lear's ego).   These family problems turn Lear into a tragic hero.   Much the same could be said about Gloucester, which will also be examined in this paper.      It is universally agreed that the primary source for the story of King Lear and his daughters was the anonymous earlier play known as The True Chronicle History of King Leir (usually abbreviated to King Leir or just Leir), which was not published until 1605 but was probably performed in 1594 or earlier (Thompson, 13).   Shakespeare's King Lear is a detailed description of the consequences of one's man actions, and the behavior of his family.   Lear is the king of England in this play, who decides to distribute his kingdom amongst his three daughters... ...otagonist in the work who suffers great emotional and physical pain, which the reader/audience can identify and sympathize with.   This hero must also suffer and/or die, which is unacceptable but inevitable.   King Lear is such a hero, the result of both egocentrism and family problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Works Cited Frey, C.   Experiencing Shakespeare.   Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1988. Granville-Barker, H.   Prefaces to Shakespeare.   London: B.T. Batsford INC, 1984. Halio, J.   The Tragedy of King Lear.   Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Kimbrough, R.   Shakespeare and the Art of Human Kindness.   NJ: Humanities Press   Ã‚  Ã‚   International, 1990. Thompson, A.   King Lear Criticism.   NJ: Humanities Press International, 1988. Vickers, B.   Appropriating Shakespeare.   New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.   

Monday, January 13, 2020

Much Ado About Nothing †Benedick Analysis Essay

Benedick is almost a match for Beatrice as a memorable Shakespearean character. His apparent misogyny and unwillingness to make a commitment to a woman are almost stereotypes early in the play. His use of language, especially in his â€Å"merry war† with Beatrice, prevents him from being the clichà ©d male who refuses to commit to a relationship. Benedick has probably had a lot of experience with women, only one of whom was Beatrice. He vehemently declares his intent to remain a bachelor and disparages Claudio for wanting to marry Hero, â€Å"Leonato’s short daughter.† He restates his disdain of love and marriage in a monologue alone on stage — even more likely to express his true feelings than his teasing comments to a companion he will lose through marriage. Throughout the early scenes, his exchanges with Beatrice create a feeling that he â€Å"doth protest too much† — that is, he really harbors at least affection for Beatrice. It takes the â€Å"noting† scene near the arbor, arranged by Don Pedro, for Benedick to admit he may indeed be able to love Beatrice since she loves him so much. His subsequent meetings with Beatrice and with his friends show a marked change in his attitudes and demeanor from the early scenes. He recognizes that he may be opening himself up for ridicule at his reversal of his well-known attitudes, but he sees his opening up as a part of maturing. His support for Beatrice after the denunciation, including his confrontation with Claudio, demonstrates not only his commitment to Beatrice, but also the value he places on justice even at the risk of loyalty. He becomes single-minded about marrying Beatrice, probably speaking to Leonato about her immediately after the confrontation with Claudio and again just before the wedding. His new behavior finally culminates in his public proposal to her, risking not only her refusal and contempt, but also the ridicule of the assembled company. Has Benedick changed during the week of the play? Most certainly, both in his public and his private attitudes. That a dyed-in-the-wool bachelor is transformed into an eager bridegroom is extraordinary, yet Shakespeare makes it believable, with a little help from Benedick’s friends.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Symptoms And Treatment Of Psychosis - 985 Words

Typical and Atypical Medication The first major development in the treatment of psychosis was first generation antipsychotics, which is known as typical antipsychotics (Guzman Farinde, 2015). In essence, these medications are used to treat schizophrenia and other associated psychotic disorders. In additions, some of the medications of the first generation include Haldol, loxitane, orap, mellaril, navane, and trilafon to name a few. Furthermore, these antipsychotics are considered cheaper than the second-generation antipsychotics, which make them valuable when treating psychotic disorders. Lieberman, Stroup, MsEvoy, Swartz, Rosenheck, Perkins, and Hsiao (2005) describe the first generation as the best treatment for psychotic symptoms, because the dopamine receptors elevate similarity in antagonists. The second-generation antipsychotics are consider more effective when it involves serotonin blockers and construct different levels of blockade in dopamine (Preston, O’Neal, Talaga, 2013). 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